Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 7 and 7.1

Go To Essential Points

Rule 7. Pleadings Allowed; Form of Motions and Other Papers

(a) PLEADINGS. Only these pleadings are allowed:

(1) a complaint;

(2) an answer to a complaint;

(3) an answer to a counterclaim designated as a counter- claim;

(4) an answer to a crossclaim;

(5) a third-party complaint;

(6) an answer to a third-party complaint; and (7) if the court orders one, a reply to an answer.


(1) In General. A request for a court order must be made by

motion. The motion must:

(A) be in writing unless made during a hearing or trial; (B) state with particularity the grounds for seeking the

order; and

(C) state the relief sought.

(2) Form. The rules governing captions and other matters of form in pleadings apply to motions and other papers.

Rule 7.1. Disclosure Statement

(a) WHO MUST FILE; CONTENTS. A nongovernmental corporate party must file 2 copies of a disclosure statement that:

(1) identifies any parent corporation and any publicly held corporation owning 10% or more of its stock; or

(2) states that there is no such corporation.


(1) file the disclosure statement with its first appearance, pleading, petition, motion, response, or other request addressed to the court; and

(2) promptly file a supplemental statement if any required information changes.

Essential Points

  • Again, not the most tested subject in law school.  Rule 7 tells us that motions must be made in writing unless made during the course of a hearing.
  • Rule 7.1 is key for your practice.  Don’t forget that corporate parties must fill out a disclosure statement identifying a parent corporation or public company that owns more than 10% of its stock or state that no such corporation exists.  The purpose is to let a judge know whether she might have a conflict of interest.